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得克萨斯州的葡萄人:T.V. 芒森

电视上曼森的大头照,老照片曼森,托马斯·沃尔尼 (1843–1913). 托马斯·沃尔尼·曼森, viticulturalist, 威廉和玛丽亚(林利)曼森的儿子, 出生在阿斯托里亚, 伊利诺斯州, 9月26日, 1843. He became one of the leading experts in native American grape species, 和 his studies were instrumental in saving the European grape 和 wine industry from disaster during the late nineteenth century. From early childhood, 芒森 had expressed an interest in horticulture. In the 1860s he taught school in 伊利诺斯州 for three years, 和 in 1870 he graduated from the University of Kentucky in Lexington. He worked there as a professor of science in 1870–71. He stated the direction his career would take when he declared the grape "the most beautiful, 最健康,最有营养, most certain 和 profitable fruit that can be grown.6月27日,曼森与艾伦·斯科特·贝尔结婚, 1870, 和 from 1871 to 1873 worked in the nursery business with her father, 查尔斯·斯图尔特·贝尔. 1873年,孟森一家搬到了内布拉斯加州, where Thomas began in earnest his career as a horticulturalist 和 viticulturalist. 他在林肯开了一个小型园艺苗圃. 曼森在当地的砧木上进行试验, but found little success because of the area's weather extremes; he once remarked that the droughts, 严冬,和 grasshoppers made life difficult for a nurseryman. 即便如此,他还是开始注意到北方 狐狸  酿酒用葡萄 were subject to various diseases, but that native or wild grapes were little attacked by disease.

To escape the adverse weather, 芒森 moved to Denison, Texas, in April 1876. 他的兄弟们 威廉·本杰明·曼森 和J. T. 芒森 lived in the area 和 were involved in insurance 和 real estate businesses; eventually Thomas 曼森奶瓶的旧标签became involved in a realty business, as well as other endeavors. 威廉把大部分时间都花在了生意上, but Thomas began to involve himself with his real love-grapes. He quickly realized the enormous biodiversity of Texas 和 soon began to conduct wide-ranging collection trips. For the rest of his life he traveled extensively throughout Texas 和 forty other states, 以及墨西哥, 覆盖50多个,000 miles by rail 和 hundreds of miles on horseback 和 by foot. He once wrote that these trips "rekindled my passion for experimental work with grapes." 芒森 soon began to publish the results of his collection trips 和 observations. 他写了很多关于分类的文章, 杂交, 还有葡萄的种类, 刊登于 美国农学家, 农场和牧场,和 葡萄栽培大道. In 1883 he received a master of science degree from the State Agricultural 和 Mechanical College of Kentucky for his thesis, 德克萨斯州的森林和森林树木, 这篇文章最终发表在 美国林业杂志. In 1885 he exhibited in New Orleans for the American Horticultural Society a complete classified herbarium of all known species of American grapes. These were displayed in glass frames; he also had plants of the same species growing in pots. Much of this work became the definitive source on grapes for horticultural authorities. In 1893 he exhibited his collection of grape species at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Much of 芒森's work centered around improving the different varieties of American grapes, 和 his studies led to the introduction of more than 300 grape varieties. 1909年他出版了他的 美国葡萄栽培的基础的标准参考 葡萄文化 在美国.

奖章作为奖励芒森's work enabled him to help save the European grape 和 wine industry from devastating fungus 和 insect attacks. In the 1840s European vineyards had been ravaged by the fungus parasite 粉孢子. During that time France suffered losses of nearly 80 percent of its vines. 欧洲葡萄酒工业进口本地葡萄酒 狐狸 rootstock from the United States, but these cuttings brought in 葡萄根瘤蚜, a plant louse, which attacked the slowly recovering vineyards. In 1868 葡萄根瘤蚜 was discovered in southern France; more than 6 million acres of vineyards were destroyed in France, 德国, 以及欧洲其他地区. 法国葡萄酒产业, 知道了曼森的专长, requested that he send some of the grape hybrid rootstock that he had developed during his studies at Denison. 他运 葡萄根瘤蚜-resistantrootstock to France, where it was grafted with varieties of European 酿酒用葡萄. 和另一位园艺学家的作品, 赫尔曼Jaeger, helped save the European wine industry from total devastation. 因为曼森的角色, the French government in 1888 sent a delegation to Denison to confer on him the French Legion of Honor Chevalier du Mérite Agricole. 芒森 also received numerous other awards 和 honors. In 1898 he was elected as a foreign corresponding member of the Société Nationale d'Agriculture de France 和 as an honorary member in the Société des Viticulteurs de France. The University of Kentucky awarded him an honorary doctor of science degree in 1906. He was a founder 和 served as president of the Texas Horticulture Society 和 was a member of the American Horticultural Society 和 the American Pomological Society. He was also a member of the Texas World's Fair Commission in 1903–04 和 in 1904 was on the International Jury of Awards for the St. 路易博览会.

芒森 continued to live in Denison with his wife 和 seven children until he died, 1月21日, 1913. Around 1975 pg电子下载 in the Sherman-Denison area established a 托马斯·沃尔尼·曼森 Memorial Vineyard to recognize 芒森's contribution to horticulture 和 to cultivate 和 preserve many of the 芒森 grape varieties. 在1988年. V. 芒森 Viticulture 和 Enology Center opened next to the vineyard. Several statues honoring 芒森 have been erected in France.